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日期:2021-11-24 09:57

COSC 222: Data Structures

Lab 7 – Graphs

Question 1 [8 marks]: Question 1 does not require coding. You will need to submit a PDF file with your

answers. This can be handwritten and scanned, drawn on a tablet, or created using a diagramming program

and word processor. Name your file Lab7Question1.pdf.

A. Prim’s Algorithm [4 marks]: Apply Prim's algorithm on the graph to construct a minimum

spanning tree starting with vertex A. If there are any ties, the vertex with the lower letter comes first

(for an example, unvisited vertex ‘B’ should come before another unvisited vertex ‘C’). Write the

vertices and edges in the order in which they are added to the tree. Also, include the total cost to

span the tree. Show each step (feel free to use graphs.docx file for showing each step).

B. Kruskal’s algorithm [4 marks]: Step through Kruskal’s algorithm (covered in lecture 14) to

calculate a minimum spanning tree of the graph. If you can select two edges with the same weight,

select the edge that would come alphabetically first (e.g., select (B, C) before (E, F) or (A, B) before

(A, F). Also, when representing an edge, arrange two letters in alphabetical order, e.g., use (C, E)

instead of (E, C). List the edges in the order in which they are added to the tree. Also, include the

total cost to span the tree. Show each step (feel free to use graphs.docx file for showing each step).

Question 2 (Graph Representation): Adjacency Matrices and Lists [10 marks]

While we typically visualize graphs as interconnected webs of nodes, graphs in code are typically

represented in 2 ways: adjacency matrices and adjacency lists. These three formats are shown below

in Figures 1-3.

In this question, you will write a program which will create a graph and then print it as both an

adjacency matrix and as an adjacency list. You will need the following files: Graph.java and

GraphTest.java.

First review GraphTest.java. You do not need to change anything in this file. Notice the method

randomMatrix() in particular. This method generates a random double-array of integers, with the

size given, representing the adjacency matrix of a graph. This random double array is then taken as

the only argument for the Graph constructor. Your task is to complete all of the necessary methods

within the Graph.java file.

Part A [5 marks]:

Graph() and generateAdjList(): First write the constructor of the graph. This constructor takes

in the adjacency matrix (int[][]) as its only argument. It then initializes the Graph (i.e., initialize the

values of numVertices and adjMatrix). You should also call generateAdjList() from the

constructor. This method takes no arguments, but uses the data in the newly saved adjMatrix to

populate the adjListArray.

Note: Please use Java’s default LinkedList class. Here is a sample code showing how to add four

number into an array of LinkedList. If you prefer to use a list instead of an array, feel free to make

corresponding changes in the code.

import java.util.LinkedList;

... ... ...

int n = 2; //Array size 2

LinkedList<Integer>[] arrayLinkedList = new LinkedList[n]; //Initialize array

arrayLinkedList[0] = new LinkedList<Integer>(); //Initialize array elements

arrayLinkedList[1] = new LinkedList<Integer>(); //(objects of LinkedList)

arrayLinkedList[0].add(101); //Add 101 and 102 to arrayLinkedList[0]

arrayLinkedList[0].add(102);

arrayLinkedList[1].add(201); //Add 201 and 202 to arrayLinkedList[1]

arrayLinkedList[1].add(202);

for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) { //Showing the elements with get() method, you can also

for (int j = 0; j < arrayLinkedList[i].size(); j++) { //use for-each loop

System.out.print(arrayLinkedList[i].get(j) + " ");

}

System.out.println();

}

Output:

101 102

201 202

Part B [2 marks]:

printMatrix(): This method takes no arguments, but prints the adjacency matrix (adjMatrix) in

the format shown below. Note that since the graphs are randomly generated, the values will not be

identical to the output shown.

Part C [3 marks]:

printList(): This method takes no arguments, and prints the adjacency list (adjListArray) in

the format shown below. Note that since the graphs are randomly generated, the values will not be

identical to the output shown.

Practicing drawing the graphs generated by randomMatrix() may be a good exercise for your

exam. Try drawing the graphs first by looking at either the matrix or the adjacency list and then

checking from the other.

Sample Output:

Graph 1:

Adjacency matrix (4 nodes):

0 1 1 1

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1

1 0 1 0

Adjacency list of vertex 0: 1, 2, 3

Adjacency list of vertex 1: 3

Adjacency list of vertex 2: 3

Adjacency list of vertex 3: 0, 2

Graph 2:

Adjacency matrix (7 nodes):

0 0 1 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 1 1 1 1

0 1 0 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 0 1 1

0 1 1 1 0 1 1

0 0 1 1 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 0

Adjacency list of vertex 0: 2, 6

Adjacency list of vertex 1: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Adjacency list of vertex 2: 1, 5

Adjacency list of vertex 3: 0, 2, 5, 6

Adjacency list of vertex 4: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6

Adjacency list of vertex 5: 2, 3, 4

Adjacency list of vertex 6: 4

Question 3 (DFS): Count Starting Nodes [2 + 3 (bonus) marks]

This question asks that you write a program which will take an undirected graph and visit all the

vertices using a Depth-First Search (DFS). However, with some graphs it is not possible to reach

every vertex from one starting vertex (i.e. a disconnected graph). Therefore, you may need to select

more than one starting vertex to complete the graph traversal.

Begin with the files DFSGraph.java and DFSTest.java. In DFSTest.java, one of several unique

graphs is generated. Then two methods from the DFSGraph.java class are called, which you will

need to complete.

Part A [2 mark]:

printList(): This method prints out the graph in an adjacency-list format. You may adapt your

printList() method from Question 2.

Part B [3 marks (BONUS)]:

countStartingNodes(): This method finds the number of vertices that need to be selected as

starting vertices to traverse the entire graph. Check Lecture 12 slide 24. For the left graph, we can

select one vertex and traverse the entire graph. However, for the right graph, you need to select

minimum two vertices to traverse the entire graph. Note that you must select vertices in ascending

order (i.e. you must try starting from vertex 1 before trying vertex 2). Hint: you may want to use a

boolean flag to keep track of which vertices have already been visited.

Within this method, you should call DFS(). This method traverses the graph from the given starting

vertex, maintaining a record of which nodes have been visited. Recursion should be used with this

method. Note that you may wish to change the return type.

When the traversal has been completed, countStartingNodes() should print the number of

starting vertices selected and a list of the selected vertices.

If you complete these methods correctly, you should see the following output when testing your

program with the provided graph0 matrix.

Sample Output:

Adjacency list of vertex 0: 1

Adjacency list of vertex 1: 0, 2

Adjacency list of vertex 2: 1

Adjacency list of vertex 3: No vertex found

You can traverse the entire graph by selecting 2 vertices

Starting vertices are: 0 3

Submission Instructions:

● Create a folder called “Lab7_<student_ID >” where <student_ID > is your student

number/ID (e.g. Lab7_12345678). Only include the mentioned java files in the folder. DO

NOT include any other files (e.g., .class, .java~ or any other files)

o For Question 1, include a pdf file your Lab7Question1.pdf file.

o For Question 2, include your Graph.java file.

o For Question 3, include your DFSGraph.java file.

● Make a zip file of the folder and upload it to Canvas.

● To be eligible to earn full marks, your Java programs must compile and run upon

download, without requiring any modifications.

● These assignments are your chance to learn the material for the exams. Code your

assignments independently.


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